IO1: MONITORED SET OF SKILLS FOR THE JOB PROFILE OF ‘SPECIALISED TRANSLATORS’

The major objective of Output 1, the first intellectual product of eTransFair, was to identify a set of skills ­– a sort of competence profile – for specialised translators, on the basis of the reviews of competence models already outlined for general translators; and recommend a set of teaching modules to be introduced at university curricula to meet the changing requirements of the translation market.

As a first step, we put the investigation into the relevant context by looking at current statistical figures concerning global and European translation and interpreting (T/I) industry trends (EUATC report, 2016). Based on the report, and after exploring a number of relevant international T/I quality standards, we attempted to highlight the most essential requirements for professional competence posed by T/I companies.  

As the next step, we looked at the existing European initiatives regarding the issue of translation competence first in a general context then individually, and examined the major models and projects of the past few years (EMT, Optimale, Agora, Transcert, CIUTI, BME-Proford) in greater detail. After comparing the individual skills set and highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each model or project, the paper  discussed the elusiveness and translatability of the term ‘specialised translation’ and offered a selection of the terminological problems we identified in these projects.

Based on the above investigation, comparison and a careful literature review of the issue, we proposed a set of competences (in the form of learning outcomes) to be acquired by specialised translators on the basis of which a group of modules have been selected to become part of a potential training scheme. Additionally, we have identified various roles that translators may take on in translation bureaus.

The modules proposed in IO1 will be the major building blocks of a newly proposed transferable training scheme under Output 2, while the content for each module shall be elaborated in the framework of Output 3. The skills set indentified for specialised translators in the framework of Output 1 will be monitored during and after the term of the project, based on continual feedback from other project activities.

eTransfair Competence card

ETRANSFAIR: COMPETENCE CARD FOR

SPECIALISED TRANSLATORS

 

Competence[1]

Learning outcomes/descriptors

TRANSLATION COMPETENCE

Knowledge[2]

S/he understands various models and methods of translation, focusing on the processes (acquisition of procedural skills).

S/he is aware of translation strategies and techniques.

Skills[3]

S/he is able to understand source texts and create a translation appropriate to the client's request and skopos.

S/he is able to identify and solve translation problems.

S/he is able to define and apply translation strategies and techniques appropriately using appropriate meta-language.

LANGUAGE COMPETENCE

Knowledge

S/he understands the linguistic and (inter-)textual rules/conventions of the source language and the target language.

Skill

S/he is able to apply these rules/conventions adequately in the source language and the target language.

S/he is able to compare the linguistic and (inter-)textual rules/conventions and other characteristics of the source language and the target language, and adapt a product for a locale (i.e. localization).

Attitude/sensitivity[4]

S/he is aware of recent changes and developments in the source language and the target language.

INTER- AND TRANS-CULTURAL[5] COMPETENCE

Knowledge

S/he understands principles and conventions of culture(s).

 

 Skills

S/he is able to identify, apply and handle (inter-)cultural principles and conventions.

S/he is able to manage (inter-)cultural principles and conventions in text/translation.

S/he is able to compare the cultural conventions of the source language and the target language.

Attitude/sensitivity

S/he is aware of recent changes and developments in culture(s).

 REVISION AND REVIEW COMPETENCE

Knowledge

S/he is familiar with the general concepts of revision and review.

Skills

S/he is able to apply the above concepts adequately in revision and review (process).

Attitude/sensitivity

S/he is aware of professional revision and review practice and its impact on a translation project.

DOMAIN-SPECIFIC COMPETENCE

Knowledge

S/he knows how to identify domain(s).

S/he understands linguistic and (inter-)textual conventions in domain(s).

Skills

S/he is able to translate in domain(s).

S/he is able to edit and/or create a target text in domain(s).

Attitude/sensitivity

S/he is aware of recent changes and developments in domain(s).

TECHNOLOGICAL COMPETENCE

Knowledge

S/he is aware of translation and communication technology available on the market.

S/he knows how to differentiate between and select suitable technology according to the text/translation request.

Skills

S/he is able to use translation and communication technology effectively.

Attitude/sensitivity

S/he is aware of the technological requirements of the translation brief.

INFORMATION MINING & TERMINOLOGICAL COMPETENCE

Knowledge

S/he is familiar with the general concepts of information mining and terminology.

Skills

S/he is able to apply appropriate strategies while creating and translating terminology.

S/he is able to manage terminology (in databases) and customise it for specific translation projects.

Attitude/sensitivity

S/he demonstrates a critical mind needed to evaluate the reliability of terminology/documentary sources.

PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE

Project management

S/he is familiar with the general concepts and professional standards of project management.

S/he demonstrates an understanding of how translation companies are structured and operate.

S/he knows how the industry’s and other external factors impact the project management approach.

She is aware of project management technology available on the market.

Entrepreneurship

S/he recognises the differences in the work of freelance translators and translators in employment.

S/he shows familiarity with the principles and procedures for establishing a freelance or translation company business in the chosen country of operation.

S/he knows the basic principles of accounting and tax in the chosen country of operation.

S/he knows the basic principles of insurance in the chosen country of operation.

S/he is able to estimate a project (principles and procedures) in the chosen country of operation.

S/he knows the concepts of the profession’s legal aspects.

S/he knows the concepts of the profession’s ethical aspects.

Generic competence / transferable skills

S/he is aware of the importance of transferable skills (including personal, interpersonal and instrumental competence) relevant for the profession.

Marketing and customer care

S/he understands the basic concept of marketing and customer care.

Quality management

S/he is familiar with the general concepts of quality management (assurance, assessment, control and improvement) used in the translation industry.

S/he is aware of the importance of quality management in the processes involved in translation projects.

S/he understands differences between quality as a product and quality as a process.

S/he is familiar with the procedures when a non-conformity or customer claim is produced.

       

[1] Competence has been defined as “the sum of knowledge, skills and characteristics that allow a person to perform actions” (CEFR, 2012); “as an ability to apply knowledge, experience, and skills to achieve intended results” (ISO 17100, 2015)); “all the skills and knowledge that contribute to the successful completion of a translation task” (Lesznyák, 2008); and as “the underlying system of knowledge, skills and attitudes required to translate” (PACTE, 2001). In the context of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF, 2008), competence means the proven ability to use knowledge, skills and personal, social and/ or methodological abilities, in work or study situations and in professional and personal development.

[2] Knowledge means the outcome of the assimilation of information through learning. Knowledge is the body of facts, principles, theories and practices that is related to a field of work or study" (EQF, 2008).

[3] Skill means “the ability to apply knowledge and use know-how to complete tasks and solve problems” (EQF, 2008).

[4] Attitude relates directly to Bloom's Taxonomy (1956, 1976) of educational objectives: Cognitive – Knowledge, Psychomotor – Skills and Affective – Attitude (one’s beliefs and/or motivation, being manifested in behaviour).

Autonomy and responsibility as part of attitude will have to be discussed..

[5] Transcultural definition: SUBJECT TO DISCUSSION…